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In the 2000s, awareness has grown of the men who are trafficked or who simply migrate out of Central Asia, particularly from the states of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan into Russia, and who find themselves in slave labor in construction work, fisheries, fieldwork or shops. Russia has criminalised human trafficking in article 127.1 of the criminal code. The collapse of the Soviet empire in Eastern Europe in 1989 and the final disintegration of the USSR in 1991 had serious consequences. The reasons in the Russian case are several and historical context is key. In fact, over the years, Russia has been diplomatically praised for making some efforts, but regularly criticized for not setting up shelters or adequate psychological counseling services for returnees from trafficking situations, for not making enough convictions, and for not having a comprehensive strategy in place or formal national procedures. Human trafficking: Irina's story. In some countries, they are returned to their traffickers due to local corruption. The government identified 20 trafficking victims in 2017. St. Petersburg has also become a lively center of child prostitution attracting some Western men to take trips there. Prostitution grew over the decades in big cities like Moscow and St. Petersburg, despite denials by the Soviet state that it existed under socialism. The existence of a globalized world of interconnectedness, technological advances, fast travel, cell phones and the Internet, facilitated global patterns of human trafficking. Fear and desperation were experienced by many, some becoming drug addicts. Nonetheless, various figures have been suggested. Subsequent refusals to comply and protests from the women might result in threats, rape, and violence and an insistence that the women had to pay off their debts for the cost of their flights and of all the arrangements made for them. Psychological counseling is badly needed and not always available. In the 1990s Russian social scientists such as Elena Tiuriukanova and Natalia Khodyreva attempted to expose the problem, educate the public and put pressure on the parliament, the State Duma, to pass anti-trafficking legislation. Learn more about how we use cookies or edit your cookie preferences. Article contributed by Ms. Maria Melnikova, Sex trafficking occurs in brothels, hotels, and saunas, among other locations. Human trafficking is one of the most heinous crimes investigated by ICE. He was provided safe shelter at a hotel until further accommodations were secured. Slavic women were especially prized by clients for their high cheek bones and blond hair. Fair Observer uses these aggregate statistics from website visits to help improve the content of the website and to provide regular reports to our current and future donors and funding organizations. How does the wider Russian public view human trafficking into prostitution? Cox Virginia brings you a surprising documentary taking you inside this horrific epidemic that we found is a lot closer to us than we realize. In 2013, the US State Department’s annual Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report downgraded Russia from its Tier-2 “Watch List” to its lowest classification of Tier-3. Russia has since withdrawn giving federal statistics involving human trafficking to the US State Department, however various NGO's and other organizations are still cooperating with foreign agencies. Women are also trafficked into the sex industry inside Russia. But Irina did not give up trying to escape. Her passport was taken away, and she was threatened if she refused to obey or tried to run away. Yet bilateral discussions about it with other states do take place, conferences have been convened, and the advocacy of moving more towards Eurasian regional economic union may in the long run push human trafficking higher up agendas. At the same time, almost 31 percent of men and 35 percent of women recognized that the trafficked my have been duped by criminal gangs. Men and women are trafficked within Russia and from Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, and Moldova to Russia for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor, including work in the construction Thirty-seven percent of both genders acknowledged that the women were looking for work due to a lack of jobs, but 35 percent of males and 31 percent of females considered the trafficked “in the main to be prostitutes, hoping to earn more in other countries.” A high majority of respondents had low hopes of political institutions being able to solve the problem; a pessimistic 23 percent overall felt that “no-one” could be effective in tackling human trafficking and 22 percent just did not know who could. Their new host would ask for their passports to register them locally – something quite normal for Russians as visitors to Russia have to do this – then take them to a brothel and inform them of the nature of their new job, keeping the confiscated passports. Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others. Employment and investment patterns changed and along came new opportunities for the exploitation of those in need. The tight restrictions on mobility that had prevented many Soviet citizens from traveling abroad were now eased. A special law did not result, but the Criminal Code was amended and Article 127.1 thereafter declared that human trafficking was punishable by prison terms. In the 1990s Russian social scientists such as Elena Tiuriukanova and Natalia Khodyreva attempted to expose the problem, educate the public and put pressure on the parliament, the State Duma, to pass anti-trafficking legislation. We bring you perspectives from around the world. Furthermore, the international political economy of sex and male demand for prostitutes gave criminal gangs and small operators huge possibilities for their own enrichment. Carlos also received assistance from an immigration attorney through The Dragonfly Home. Eventually Carlos was recognized as a human trafficking victim/survivor and was referred to The Dragonfly Home. Although the law did not materialize, their efforts prepared the groundwork for later acceptance of the dire need for action. With the assistance of the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the Russian Embassy, Irina was safely repatriated. She was now to work as a waitress in a local café for US$ 1,000 a month. Effectively trapped in debt bondage and slavery, thousands of Russian women found themselves servicing up to 30 men a night. News from the Russian Federation of Renat's arrest following a petition by Irina's mother brought added threats and abuse. US Immigration Reform: A Mirage on the Horizon? Register for $9.99 per month and become a member today. And 20s were much sought after the street to control her 23 given sentences ranging from between 2 11. 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